Electrical potential or electric potential is the difference between two point charge higher positive charge means higher electric potential lower positive charge means lower electrical potential. We know in general positive charge is much heavier than negative charge like a table with a page, table is more heavier than a page if you want to move the table you have to apply more force than moving the page. To move the page you need a little bit energy the page can be moved by wind blowing but the table can be moved with more energy. This example shows the mass between the electron or negative charge and the proton or positive charge. Separating positive charge from electron is not easy if you separate electron from atom then it becomes positively charged and we can say it has electrical potential value when it is charged with positive charge.
Potential is a significant and very important term in electricity. Connecting two charged bodies with conductor wire charge may be flowed or not between two bodies. Flowing of charge does not depend upon the bodies of the two charge amount. It depends on some conditions of the charged bodies.
The depending condition is called as electric potential. Where is electric potential difference there will flow of charge, if not potential difference flowing of charge is not possible. In every electrical circuits where current flows there is electrical potential difference between two points. There is a combination between flowing of water and electric potential and flowing of heats between two bodies.
If a small vessel and large vessel is connected by a pipe, then water will flow from one vessel to another until they reach same level. Attaining same water level flowing of water will be stopped. Similarly for thermal condition heat will flow between two bodies until the two bodies become same temperature. Same things happen in the electricity. Where is potential difference electric charges flow there. Electric charge flows from higher potential to lower potential.
Now we can say
“The state for which flow of charge between two charged bodies can take place is called electric potential.”
Charge on a sphere: If two metal circles are connected by wire with positive charge, then it can be following as below
1) Sphere charge can be moved right circle to left circle.
2) Charge can be transferred to left circle from right circle.
3) It will be remained as before.
Transferring of charge does not depend on the quantity of sphere. It depends on electric potential. Current charge flows from high charge sphere to how charge sphere. The flowing of charge will be held until the two spheres obtain equal positive +q charge.
So potential is those conditions which takes or give charges when it connects with another conductor. Flowing of electric charge does not depend on the quantity of two charged conductor. Consider two conductors are positively charged. First conductor has charged more than second conductor. But electric potential of first conductor is less than second conductor.
If we connect two conductors, then positive electricity charge will flow from second conductor to first though first conductor has more positive charge than second. The positive charge will flow until the electric potential of two spheres reach equal position. When the two spheres obtain equal potential, the flowing charge will be ended.
General thought of charge movement
Generally we consider positive charge moves higher potential to lower potential if we connect higher potential electrical charge to lower potential then the charge flows higher to lower potential until becomes the same charge. Actually positive charge does not move higher potential has higher energy and energy moves higher to lower.
Actual concept of charge movement
The actual incident positive charge is heavier than negative charge where lower potential there are very much free electron and where has higher electric potential there is no free electrons or very few electrons remain when you connect higher potential to lower potential then low potential point free electrons move to higher potential to make bond which we call neutral each electron makes bonds with positive charge and become neutral that actually happen on the voltage or potential difference.
We can easily say electricity is the foundation and key of modern civilization. Without electricity we can not think even about modern civilization. The extensive use of electricity and tremendous application is evident in our daily life. Every essential electronic machine fans, trains, trams, industries, factories are run by electricity. Our houses are lighted by it. Radio, television, telephone, computer etc. can work with electricity. Now the main question is what is electricity- energy or matter?
No matter is present in electricity.
So, it is clear that from definition electricity is form of energy.
“Other form of energy can be converted into electricity and electricity can be converted to other form of energy and work can be done by electricity.”
History of electricity
# Definition of electricity:
From the Greek word “electron”, the word electricity originated. “Electron” means amber (the hard sap of a kind of pine tree). The Greek philosopher Thales had noticed that amber, when it rubbed with silk, showed the property of attracting very light objects like paper, straws etc. the invisible power was called electricity. It was said that simply charge or electric charges generated in the object.
In 1600 Dr. Gilbert explained that not only in amber when glass, rubber, ebonite etc. are rubbed similar effect is produced. After combing hair plastic comb attracts small piece of paper in winter. Dr. Gilbert named this event as electrification. The charge producing object called charged object. The object in which charge is not present is uncharged object.